A Mwadi spirit was the incarnation of the King Kasongo Niembo, who died in 1933, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1970s. Photo by Thomas Q. Reefe. Submitted by Mary Nooter Roberts.

When a Luba king died, his spirit was incarnated by a female spirit medium, whose title was Mwadi. Luba people say that only a woman’s body is strong enough to hold a spirit as powerful as that of a king, which is why sculpture dedicated to kingship is almost always female in gender. This Mwadi was the incarnation of King Kasongo Niembo, who died in 1931. She resided in the former royal village, acquired his titleholders and insignia and received gifts on a regular basis from the new king who established his residence in a different locale. The residences of the thirteen Luba kings thus became sites of memory and were called spirit capitals where the Mwadis ruled their “kingdoms of the dead.” Each Mwadi was succeeded at her own death by another woman in her lineage, thus ensuring the perpetuation of the king’s memory.

Most commonly known as Mwadi but Kifikwa by others. Luba kings and very powerful chiefs are considered to be semi-divine, with one foot in humanity and the other in the realm of bavidye. But once deceased, they join the pantheon of bavidye, and in the past it was documented that an ordinary woman would become possessed by his spirit and assume the title of Mwadi while she served as king incarnate. During the athour’s field research from 1987-1989 several Luba individuals explained that the reasons spirits take residence in the bodies of women is that only the body of a woman is strong enough to hold the spirit of a king. “The spirits responded above all to women: they were more ‘favourable’ to women”

Twins in African and Diaspora Cultures: Double Trouble, Twice Blessed
By Philip M. Peek

[edited; additional information added]


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